State Organization & Head of State
Now a days in the currently charged up environment of election, every debate, discusion leads to a singularity. Singularity here is “How should be the next government & its functions?” There are very few scholars who can justify this question however for common people this question remains unanswered. But as usual with every question there exist an answer & search for answer begins. In a pursuit of answer, the wonderful book was noticed. This book has pearls & gems from our vedas . This book is nothing short of being termed as “Treasure Trove”. It is great pleasure to introduce people with book titled “The Light of truth (Satyarth Prakash)” which is written by one of the legendary scholar & founder of Arya samaj, “Shri Dayanad Saraswati”.
The light of truth is in true sense a light beam. IT discusses many subjects in great details as per our Hindu scripture. Our question was answered in detail by a chapter in the book. Chapter 6 in book titled as “Science of Government” has detailed commentary on our question. Considering the wide scope of question, we shall divide this in to a series of small articles. In this article, we shall discuss about State Organization & head of State in this first article.
"After discoursing on the duties of the four Classes and the four Orders, we shall now describe Raaja Dharma or the duties and qualifications, etc., or Rulers, in other words, we shall discuss as to who is fit to be a king, how he is to be selected, and how he can attain the highest bliss -salvation. Let a Kshatriya (ruler), whose knowledge, culture and piety are as perfect as those of a Brahman, govern the country with perfect justice" MANU 7:A1, 2
"Let there be for the benefit of the rulers and the ruled three Assemblies – Religious, Legislative, Educational. Let each discuss and decide subjects that concern it, and adorn all men with knowledge, culture, righteousness, independence, and wealth, and thereby make them happy." RIG VEDA 3:36, 6
"Let the three Assemblies, Military Councils, and the Army harmoniously work together to carry on the government of a country." ATHARVA VEDA 15:2, 9, 2
Let a nation, therefore, elect the most learned men, as members of the Educational Assembly, the most devout men, as members of the Religious Assembly and men of the most praiseworthy character, as members of the Legislative Assembly; and let that great man in it, who possess most excellent qualities, is highly accomplished, and bears most honourable character, he made the Head or President of the Political Assembly.
Let the three Assemblies harmoniously work together, and make good laws, and let all abide by those laws. Let them all be of one mind in affairs that promote the happiness of all. All men should subordinate themselves to the laws that are calculated to promote general well-being; they should be free inn matters relating to individual well-being.
"A head of state should address the Assembly thus:- Let the leader of the Assembly abide by the just laws passed by the Assembly, and let other members do the same." ATHARVA VEDA 19:7, 55, 6
Head of State
Question: What should be qualification of Head of state?
Answer: "He should be as powerful as electricity: as dear to his people's hearts as their very breath, able to read the inmost thoughts of others, and just in his dealings as a Judge. He should enlighten people's mind by the spread of knowledge, justice, and righteousness, and dispel ignorance and injustice as the sun illuminates the world. He should be like one who consumes wickedness like fire, keeps the wicked and the criminal under control like a jailer, gladdens the hearts of the good like the moon; makes the country rich and prosperous, as a treasurer keeps his treasury full; is powerful and majestic like the sun, keeps the people in order and awe; and on whom no one in the whole world dares to look with a stern eye. He alone is then fit to be the Head of the State who is like fire, air, the sun, the moon, a judge, a treasurer, a goaler in keeping the wicked under control, and like electricity in power." MANU 7: 4, 6, 7
Question: Who should held ultimate power?
Answer: "The Law alone is the real king, the dispenser of justice, the disciplinarian. The Law is considered as the surety for the four Classes and Orders to discharge properly their respective duties. The Law alone is the true Governor that maintains order among the people. The Law alone is their Protector. The Law keeps awake whilst all the people are fast asleep. The wise, therefore, look upon the Law alone as Dharma or Right. When rightly administered the Law makes all men happy but when administered wrongly, i.e., without due regard to the requirement of justice, it ruins the head of state. Great is the power and majesty of the Law.
Question: Should head of state have absolute power?
Answer: It means that no single individual should be invested with absolute power. The king, who is the president of the Assembly, and the Assembly itself, should be inter-dependent on each other. Both should be controlled by the people, who in their turn should be governed by the Assembly.
If the system be not followed and the king be independent of the people and have absolute power, "He would impoverish the people, - being despotic and hence arrogant - and oppress them, aye, even eat them up, just as a tiger or any other carnivorous animal pounces upon a robust animal and eats it up. A despotic ruler does not let any one else grow in power, robs the rich, usurps their property by unjust punishment, and accomplishes his selfish end. One man should, therefore, never be given despotic power." SHATPATHA BRAAHMAN 12:2, 3, 7, 8
Question: Head of state be great individual?
Answer: God teaches in the Veda, "Rulers! Your implements of warfare, (such as, guns, rifles, bows, arrows, etc.) and war-materials (such as gun-powder) be worthy of praise, strong and durable to repel and conquer your enemies. Let your army be a glorious one, so that you may always be victorious. But the aforesaid things shall not be attainable to the contemptible, the despicable, and unjust." RIG VEDA 1: 39, 2
In other words, it is only as long as men remain honourable, just and virtuous that they are politically great. When they become wicked and unjust, they are absolutely ruined.
"O ye learned men ! Proclaim that man with one voice your king - the President and Head of the State - who is just, impartial, well-educated, cultured and friend of all. In this way alone shall ye attain universal sovereignity, be greater than all, manage the affairs of the State, obtain political eminence, acquire wealth, and rid the world of its enemies." YAJUR VEDA 9;40
We are delighted to bring you this article & shall publish our next article on formation of assemblie, chief offices, role of army & councils in details.